Q1. According to the terms of the ‘Subsidiary Alliance’, Indian rulers were
1) Not allowed to have their independent armed forces
2) Supposed to protect the British representatives in the princely states
Answer Option: A
1. According to the terms of this alliance, Indian rulers were not allowed to have their independent armed forces. o They were to be protected by the Company but had to pay for the “subsidiary forces” that the Company was supposed to maintain for the purpose of this protection. o If the Indian rulers failed to make the payment, then part of their territory was taken away as penalty. o For example, when Richard Wellesley was Governor-General (1798-1805), the Nawab of Awadh was forced to give over half of his territory to the Company in 1801, as he failed to pay for the “subsidiary forces”. o Hyderabad was also forced to cede territories on similar grounds
Q2. Consider the following statements regarding Mahalwari system:
1) Warren Hastings was associated with the conception of this system
2) Under the system, ryots paid a variable sum to the Zamindars who then paid to the British
3) Village lands, forestland and pastures were included under the system.
Answer Option: C only
1. In the North Western Provinces of the Bengal Presidency (most of this area is now in Uttar Pradesh), an Englishman called Holt Mackenzie devised the new system which came into effect in 1822. o He felt that the village was an important social institution in north Indian society and needed to be preserved. o Under his directions, collectors went from village to village, inspecting the land, measuring the fields, and recording the customs and rights of different groups. o The estimated revenue of each plot within a village was added up to calculate the revenue that each village (mahal) had to pay. o This demand was to be revised periodically, not permanently fixed. o The charge of collecting the revenue and paying it to the Company was given to the village headman, rather than the zamindar. o This system came to be known as the mahalwari settlement. o The land included under this system consisted of all land of the villages, even the forestland, pastures etc.
Q3. Welby Commission setup in British India concerned an enquiry into the:
A. Educational reforms in Indian Universities
B. Atrocities of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre
C. Royal Indian Navy (RIN) mutiny
D. Drain of wealth issue
Answer Option: D
1. Dadabhai Naoroji in his famous book Poverty and Un-British Rule in India wrote his Drain Theory. o He showed how India’s wealth was going away to England in the form of salaries, savings, pensions, payments to British troops in India and profits of the British companies. o The British Government was forced to appoint the Welby Commission, with Dadabhai as the first Indian as its member, to enquire into the Matter. o The Welby Commission's report, published in 1900, showed a number of cases where excessive or unjust payments had been made by the Indian government.
Q4. The Poligar revolt of early 19th Century was rooted in
A. General discontentment with foreign rule
B. Oppressive land revenue system
C. Control of tribal forests and river streams by British government
D. Enmity of tribals with non-tribals
Answer Option: B
1. The Polygar Wars or Palaiyakkarar Wars were fought between the Polygars of the former Tirunelveli Kingdom in Tamil Nadu and the British East India Company forces between 1799 to 1805 over pending taxes, oppressive land revenue system etc. o The British finally won after carrying out gruelling protracted jungle campaigns against the Polygar armies and finally defeated them. o The British victory over the Polygars brought large parts of the territories of Tamil Nadu under British control, enabling them to get a strong hold in Southern India.
Q5. Consider the following statements regarding Black holes
1) A black hole is an astronomical object with a gravitational pull so strong that nothing, not even light, can escape from it.
2) The area outside the boundary of Black holes, called the event horizon does emit all kinds of radiations, even visible light.
Answer Option: B
1. Black holes do not emit or radiate anything, even light. o So, there is no way their image can be captured. o But the area just outside its boundary, called the event horizon, which has vast amounts of gas, clouds and plasma swirling violently, does emit all kinds of radiations, even visible light.
Q6. Scientists usually study asteroids for which of the following reasons
1) Asteroids provide information about the formation and history of planets and the sun.
2) To look for asteroids that might be potentially hazardous.
3) Asteroids offer a source of volatiles and an extraordinarily rich supply of minerals.
Answer Option: (1, 2, 3)
1. The scientific interest in asteroids is largely due to their status as the remnant debris from the inner solar system formation process. o Because some of these objects can collide with the Earth, asteroids are also important for having significantly modified the Earth's biosphere in the past. o They will continue to do so in the future. o In addition, asteroids offer a source of volatiles and an extraordinarily rich supply of minerals that can be exploited for the exploration and colonization of our solar system in the twentyfirst century. o Scientists study asteroids to look for information about the formation and history of planets and the sun since asteroids were formed at the same time as other objects in the solar system. o Another reason for tracking them is to look for asteroids that might be potentially hazardous.
Q7. Consider the following statements:
1) Among all human pathogens, bacteria tend to become most resistant to antibiotics because of their physiology.
2) Bacteria does not exchange resistant genes during sexual reproduction.
Which of the above statements is/are incorrect
Answer Option: B
1. Among all human pathogens, bacteria tend to become most resistant to antibiotics because of their physiology. o Since they are unicellular, bacteria have smaller number of genes compared to multicellular organisms. o Therefore, even the slightest of changes in their genetic system resulting from exposure to antibiotics alters their pathogenic characteristic. o Moreover, since they reproduce rapidly, an entirely new 'type' of antibiotic-resistant bacteria species can evolve from one mutated individual in a very short time. o Bacteria also exchange resistant genes during sexual reproduction. o This happened in the case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae bacterium becoming resistant to penicillin.
Q8. A shortage of investible capital in an economy can result from
1) Low savings
2) Very high and erratic inflation
3) Low borrowing costs
Answer Option (1, 2)
1. High and erratic inflation deters investors from making investment decisions because real returns on investments are uncertain. o Savings forms the base of the money that is borrowed for infrastructure building in the economy. o Low savings and high demand of capital lead to high borrowing costs and deter investors.
Q9. Aggregate demand is an important economic indicator. It can be increased by
1) More investments
2) Higher Taxation
3) Increasing bank rate by RBI
Select the correct answer code:
Answer Option: A
1. Aggregate demand is the total demand for final goods and services in an economy at a given time. o Investment creates infrastructure, generates demand for raw material, labor, provides employment and adds to the productive capacity of the economy. o It is one of the most potent factors in increasing Aggregate demand (AD). o The government has some ability to impact AD. o It can give fiscal stimulus or increase taxes in order to influence how consumers spend or save. o An expansionary fiscal policy (higher spending, lower taxes) causes AD to increase, while a contractionary monetary policy (e.g. high bank rates) causes AD to decrease
Q10. ‘Economic efficiency’ as used by economists and policymakers is related to which of the following
1) Equal allocation of goods and services to all consumers and corporations.
2) Resource efficient production
Answer Option: B
1. Economic efficiency is when goods and services are distributed according to consumer preferences and needs of corporations. o It is when the maximum number of goods and services are produced with a given amount of inputs